Agile Process (Scrum and Extreme Programming)
The Agile Process or software development refers to a set of software development methods which are based on iterative development. In this process, the solutions and requirements both evolve mutual collaboration between cross functional teams. These teams are self-organizing in nature.
The Agile software development approach usually promotes a regimented kind of project management process which encourages:
* Frequent adaptation and inspection
* Self-organization and accountability
* A leadership philosophy which promotes teamwork
* A business approach which bring into line the development with customer needs and company goals
* And a group of best engineering practices having an intention to allow for rapid delivery of good-quality software.
Extreme Programming (EP)
It is a software development methodology with an intention to enhance software responsiveness and quality to the volatile requirements of customers. Being a type of Agile process, it promotes frequent releases in small development cycles. This introduces checkpoints and improves the productivity in a way that the new requirements from customers can be adopted.
The advantages of Extreme Programming are:
* Unit testing of all code
* Avoiding programming of features until needed
* Programming in pairs or carrying out extensive code review
* Clarity and simplicity in code
* Volatile customer requirements better understood
* A flag management structure
* Frequent communication between the programmers and even with the customer
It has been noted however that there are certain drawbacks with Extreme programming. They are:
* No documented compromises of user conflicts
* Unstable requirements
* Lack of overall design document or specification
* Incorporates inadequate software design
* Necessitates meetings at recurrent intervals at huge expense to customers
* Can enlarge the risk of scope creep due to the lack of thorough requirements documentation
* Requires excess of cultural change to adopt
Scrum is an incremental, iterative framework for agile software development and project management. The word “Scrum” is not really an acronym. However, many companies using this methodology spell it with capital letters. Initially Scrum methodology was focused for management of software development projects, but in recent times it can be used to run general program/project management approach or software maintenance teams.
Scrum, which contains sets of predefined roles and practices, is a process skeleton. Main roles in this method are:
1. Product Owner – Represents Stakeholders
2. Scrum Master – The one responsible for maintaining the processes
3. Team – A cross functional group of about 6-8 people who do actual design, testing, implementation, etc.
Each of the iteration is called a “sprint”, typical time frame for which is normally about two to four weeks. The length of each sprint is decided by the team. The product “backlog” pushes the set of features into a spring. These features are prioritized set of higher level requirements for the task to be carried out. Based on this product “backlog”, the team determines how many of the items can be completed in the next sprint. Once the sprint begins, nobody is allowed to alter the sprint backlog, which means that the set of requirements are frozen. On successful completion of a sprint, the team demonstrates the usage of that particular software.
This methodology should be encouraged in organizations since the major advantage of using the Scrum is that it enables the creation of teams which are highly self-organizing in nature. This is achieved by encouraging verbal communication amongst the team members, co-location of all the team members and disciplines which are involved for the project.
Differences between Scrum and Extreme Programming(EP) :
1. The time span for iterative sprints is different in both approaches.
2. Changes are not allowed by the Scrum teams during their sprints. Whereas Extreme Programming teams have to be much more agreeable to changes.
3. Work is done by EP teams in strict priority order. Whereas in case of Scrum, the product owner prioritizes the set of activities.
4. EP does prescribe some engineering practices; Scrum does not.
Agile is the new idea for software development
that try to scrape through the old methodology to shorten
the development process.
It is the principle of new software development methodology
that emphasize on the following topic.
– Rapid and flexible response to change
– speed up the development process
- don’t stop, do the development continuously despite
of the things that will affect the development process
- when there is a change, we can support this
alteration rapidly and flexible
The objective of Agile
1.Emphasize on the aptitude of each developer.Try
to commune with each other more than impress on the
tools and methodology.Such as the programmer have a chance
to talk with the customer and can do the project in agreement
with the customer’s requirement.
2.Do the project by concentrate on the result or final
software.The old methodology is concentrate on the document
but Agile is not,the purpose of Agile is that we have a
ready software to send to the customer on the definited time.
3.The main point of Agile is communication.Agile is not
prefer the contact but Agile is stress on the communication
between the customer and developer.
4.Accept the changefulness.The old methodology is must do
follow the plans (gantt chart) but Agile is not necessary to follow the plans.
But Agile must able to respond to the change.
The model of Agile is as follow.
– choose only some methodologies for developing project.
– the chosen methodolgy must be able to use the
priciple of Agile to manage the documents and the existing
– In Agile,It must consist of
– value (result)
The three things above are the part of Agile model that
can be use for develop the project efficiently and have
That’s all for this article but the story of Agile is not finish.
In my next articles I will write about technique of development using Agile and other
addition aspect for using Agile.